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英文法律文書--縮寫

2017-02-10 11:55  來源:法律教育網   糾錯

一、縮寫 Abbreviations

規則1、

在正式寫作中,應當避免使用縮寫,除非有下述規則2、規則3和規則4的情形。

In formal writing, one should not use abbreviations, except as indicated in rules 2, 3, and 4 below.

例如:

Incorrect: The U.S. Supreme Court held that the defendant's rights had been violated.

Correct: The United States Supreme Court held that the defendant's rights had been violated.

Incorrect: Professor Jonas mentioned several cities that have domestic-partnership ordinances, e.g., New York and San Francisco.

Correct: Professor Jonas mentioned several cities that have domestic-partnership ordinances, including New York and San Francisco.

Incorrect: The Court announced its decision in the case on Oct. 12, 1994.

Correct: The Court announced its decision in the case on October 12, 1994.

規則2、

如果一個縮寫的應用已經非常普遍,在一般用法中已經取代了全稱,則可以使用縮寫;但使用此縮寫時不應該使用表示縮寫的英文句號(.)。

When an abbreviation has become so common that it has supplanted the full name in common usage, one may use the abbreviation; however, one should do so without the use of periods.

例如:

Incorrect: The N.A.A.C.P. was the subject of a profile on C.B.S. last week.

Correct: The NAACP was the subject of a profile on CBS last week.

(注: NAACP abbr.National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (美國)全國有色人種協進會,CBS abbr. (美國)哥倫比亞廣播公司(Columbia Broadcasting System))

However: The defendant in the case is R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.

請注意,在上面的例子中,字母R和J后面的句號(.)應當保留,因為這個縮寫所代表的含義并非廣為人知。一般來說,這樣的縮寫應當使用全稱;但是在上面的例子中不能用全稱,因為縮寫R.J.是公司注冊名稱中使用的。

Notice that in the preceding example, the points after "R" and "J" should be left in, because the meaning of the abbreviation is not sufficiently well known to most readers. Ordinarily, one would replace such an abbreviation with the full terms; however, one can not do so in this case because the legal corporate name involved includes the abbreviation.

規則3、

當使用legal citation時,一定要按照Bluebook(見譯注)的要求來縮寫。但在行文中提及法院時,不應用縮寫。

When writing legal citations, always use the abbreviations required by the Bluebook. However, when referring to a court in text, do not abbreviate. For example:

例如:

Incorrect: The Ill. Supreme Court required the return of the child to his birth mother. Smithson v. Bettaglia, 59 Illinois 2d 73, 180 Northeast Reporter 2d 754 (1994).

Correct: The Illinois Supreme Court required the return of the child to his birth mother. Smithson v. Bettaglia, 59 Ill. 2d 73, 180 N.E.2d 754 (1994).

規則4、

當行文中涉及的公司在其注冊名稱中含有一個或多個縮寫時,如 R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.,應當保留縮寫;不要把縮寫所代表的全稱全部拼出,除非公司的注冊名稱中已經全部拼出,如Exxon Shipping Company。這條規則適用于所有的公司名稱中,包括Co., Corp., Inc.和 Ltd.。

When referring to a corporate entity that has one or more abbreviations as part of its legal name, such as R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc., leave the abbreviations in the name. Do not spell out the abbreviation unless the corporation itself spells it out, which some do (for example, Exxon Shipping Company). This rule applies to all of the various forms of corporate designations, including Co., Corp., Inc., and Ltd.

例如:

Incorrect: McDermott International, Incorporated

Correct: McDermott International, Inc.

參照:

Cross References: The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation § 6 (15th ed. 1991).

譯注:The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation

是Harvard Law Review聯合 Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal一起出版的關于如何引用法律文件和期刊的權威工具書,為法律學者和實務工作者所廣泛使用。

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